Anna Timmerman, Singh, Raghuwinder, Strahan, Ronald E., Fontenot, Kathryn, Willis, Joe, Fields, Jeb S., Kirk-Ballard, Heather
St. Tammany Parish Gardening Symposium: Organic and Sustainable Gardening
8 a.m.-noon, March 7
Castine Center, 63350 Pelican Drive, Mandeville
Contact Will Afton at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Spring Garden Day at the Hammond Research Station10 a.m.-1 p.m., March 28
Hammond Research Station
21549 Old Covington Highway, Hammond
$5 per vehicle
New Orleans Spring Garden Show
New Orleans Botanical Garden
5 Victory Avenue, New Orleans
$10 adult admission; children $5; kids 5 and under free
St. Francisville Spring Garden Tour
Location and Time TBA
Contact Jessie Hoover at email@example.com.
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A rainbow of color is about to appear in the swamps and gardens of Louisiana just as the Carnival season fades away. Louisiana irises (Iris brevicaulis, Iris fulva, Iris giganticaerulea, Iris hexagona and Iris nelsonii) grow wild in Louisiana and parts of the Gulf Coast. Many gardeners have a patch or two of these spring beauties in their gardens and eagerly await their blooms in March and April.
Louisiana irises can be easily grown in ordinary garden beds or as a focal point in wet, low-lying areas of the garden. In the wild, they prefer boggy or swampy conditions but do just fine with slightly drier accommodations. Louisiana irises enjoy at least six hours of direct sunlight to bloom optimally but will do fine in shadier conditions with a decrease in blooms.
Louisiana irises look great mixed into perennial beds or surrounded by annuals while they are in dormancy. Fall and late summer are great times to transplant irises. Plant rhizomes so that they are at or just below the soil surface. Burying them too deeply can result in poor growth or rotten rhizomes. Fertilize Louisiana irises in October and again in February to encourage robust plants that bloom well. A slow-release all-purpose fertilizer is perfect and supplies all they need for the season. Mulch your Louisiana irises to control weeds and keep the soil moist at all times. Sunlight can also scald the rhizomes in the summertime. For more Louisiana iris care tips, please check out the Louisiana Iris publication from the AgCenter. It can be found by searching for Publication 1969 at LSUAgCenter.com.
Anna Timmerman, GNO Area Horticulture Agent
Louisiana iris by a pond. Photo credit: Gary Salathe
If you notice some splotchy chlorosis (yellowing) on the upper surface of your camellia leaves (Figure 1), flip them over and take another look. If it looks like they are covered with a white fuzz (Figure 2), then you’ve been invaded by tea scale (Fiorinia theae). These tiny insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts will literally suck the life out of your plant. Tea scale is a common and problematic issue on camellias in the Southeast and has also been reported on hollies, bottlebrush, dogwood, euonymus, ferns, mango, Satsuma, orchids, tea camellia and yaupon.
Tea scale is indigenous to Asia and was probably introduced into the U.S. in the early 1900s on imported camellia plants. The tea scale life cycle is greatly influenced by climatic conditions.
Tea scale eggs are small, yellow ovals slightly larger at one end. Under optimal conditions, the eggs hatch in about 10 days and produce nymphs. These are the “crawlers.” The eggs are all laid by the adult female underneath her protective shell.
The adult female is about one-tenth of an inch long and light yellow. She retains her shed skin when she molts. This eventually hardens and turns brown and forms her protective covering. She lays 10 to 15 eggs inside this shell.
Adult males are also about one-tenth of an inch in size and light yellow in color with one pair of forewings and a pair of halteres. Halteres are small knobbed structures modified from the hind wings in flies. They vibrate during flight and help the insect fly better. Males have no functional mouthparts; they follow pheromones to the females, mate and soon die. The nymphs (crawlers) and adult males produce copious amounts of white waxy threads that cover their bodies.
Tea scale eggs hatch in seven to 21 days. The crawlers emerge from the female’s protective shell and begin feeding in two to three days. They molt in 18 to 36 days and the second molt occurs a week later. At 41 to 65 days, the female begins laying eggs. The entire life cycle takes 60 to 70 days (depending on climate). In mild winter climates, the life cycle continues year-round. Overlapping cycles means that you will find every stage of the tea scale on your camellia at any given time.
Tea scales have several natural enemies — small parasitic wasps, lady beetles, green lacewings and spiders — that help to keep the population in check. Heavy infestations will require control measures in addition to these beneficials.
Horticultural oils are good contact insecticides that are easy on the beneficials. But good coverage on the leaf underside is absolutely essential. You will need at least two applications 10 days apart in order to break the cycle. Frequent monitoring and additional applications will probably be required. Other contact insecticides that show activity against tea scale are malathion, carbaryl (Sevin) and pyrethrins.
Tea scales feed with piercing-sucking mouthparts; therefore, systemic insecticides are also very effective in controlling them. Acephate, imidacloprid and dinotefuran are three commonly used systemic insecticides that are effective against scale. It may take a couple of years of diligent control practices to get them fully under control if your plants are heavily infested. Dead scale insects do not fall off the plant, so to determine the effectiveness of your control measures, squish a few. Dead insects will be dry but live insects will be moist.
Tea scales secrete honeydew while feeding. This sweet liquid may drip to leaves and stems below, leading to a black coating of sooty mold. This is merely a superficial unsightly problem that can be washed off with a strong stream of soapy water.
Dr. Joe Willis, Horticulture Agent, Orleans Parish
Figure 1. Tea scale (Fiorinia theae) damage on the camellia leaf upper surface. Photo courtesy of Clemson University-USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series and Bugwood.org
Figure 2. The underside of a camellia leaf heavily infested with tea scale (Fiorinia theae). Photo courtesy of Clemson University-USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series and Bugwood.org
The Louisiana Super Plant program is an educational campaign of the LSU AgCenter that identifies superior plant material for Louisiana landscapes. Louisiana Super Plants have undergone rigorous trials and at multiple AgCenter locations across the state of Louisiana, as well as being vetted and approved by the Louisiana green industry. As such, Louisiana Super Plants are university tested and industry approved. Each year the AgCenter introduces new plants in both the spring and the fall. This year we have two amazing series of plants to announce in the spring. Both of these inductees are amazing bedding plants that will last throughout the warm season across the entire state. They are grown in full sun and bring an outstanding burst of color to any Louisiana landscape.
The first inclusion into the Louisiana Super Plants program for spring 2020 is the Lucky Star pentas. Pentas are some of the best plants for attracting pollinators to a garden, and with their bright vivid colors, pentas attract people as well! The Louisiana Super Plants program has already included Butterfly pentas, and the more compact Lucky Star pentas performed so well in our trials that it was time to add another group. Across our trialing sites and through the years, these were continually top performers. In fact, Lucky Star Dark Red was one of the top winners of 2018 in the Hammond Research Station Ornamental Trials, and Lucky Star Lavender was one of the top performers in the 2019 Hammond Research Station Ornamental Trials.
Currently, there are six different colors in the Lucky Star series, including Lipstick, White Improved, Deep Pink, Lavender, Violet and our favorite, Dark Red. These are more compact than Butterfly pentas and still keep the nonstop color throughout the season.
FlameThrower coleus is the second series that will be announced in the Spring 2020 Louisiana Super Plants. FlameThrower coleus can be spotted by their uniquely shaped foliage and their bold, lasting colors. These medium-sized coleus are great for landscape plants and also do well in large containers. Flamethrower coleus joins Henna coleus as Louisiana Super Plants. Just like with Lucky Star pentas, FlameThrower coleus performed so well across the trials that it warranted another coleus addition to the program. FlameThrower coleus thrive in full sun and do best in well drained soils. Like most coleus, FlameThrower are low maintenance landscape plants, but this series is extra special because it is one of the last to flower in the landscape. FlameThrower coleus are currently available in seven spicy varieties, including Salsa Roja, Serrano, Habanero, Chili Pepper, Chipotle, Spiced Curry and Salsa Verde.
Dr. Jeb Fields, Commercial and Ornamental Horticulture Specialist
Lucky Star Dark Red pentas enticing butterfly.
Lucky Star Lavender pentas grown in containers.
Lucky Star Dark Red pentas grown in containers.
Spiced Curry FlameThrower coleus.
Salsa Verde FlameThrower coleus.
Serrano FlameThrower coleus.
Spring is my absolute favorite season for vegetable gardening — and I am probably not alone. Cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers and more all grow this time of year. So, let’s get started!
A great garden starts with a clean garden. Pull weeds and remove any fall vegetables that have already been harvested or are harboring insects. Lightly till the soil. Then take a soil sample. The LSU AgCenter Soil and Plant Testing Lab will provide you with results of the micronutrients and macronutrients in your soil that are available to plants, the soil’s pH and organic matter content. Soil samples cost $15 and are money well spent, especially because home gardeners really only need to run samples every three or so years. Make sure the soil pH is between 5.5 and 7.0. Adding lime will increase soil pH, and adding sulfur will decrease soil pH. If you plan to incorporate manure or compost, do so before you take your soil sample. We definitely recommend adding either, but if you chose manures, make sure they are aged at least 6 months old or older. Add fertilizer — your choice of organic or conventional — as the soil test recommends.
Many great veggies can be planted in the next few months. Here are a few LSU AgCenter favorites.
Directly plant snap beans, Swiss chard, radishes, lettuce, collards, mustards, turnips, cabbage, broccoli and sweet corn seeds. Remember, sweet corn is wind-pollinated, so for full ears to grow, the corn must have good nitrogen fertilization and also in stands planted three rows wide or wider. The length of the row does not matter as much as the width of the planting. You never know which way the wind will blow. Plant tomatoes, peppers and eggplant transplants mid-month in south Louisiana and later in the month for north Louisiana. Plant cantaloupes, squash, cucumbers and watermelons well after the danger of frost is over; this is usually after March 15 in south Louisiana and closer to April 1 in north Louisiana. The cucurbits can be planted from seedlings or directly seeded into the soil this month.
Plant snap bean and butter beans. Butter beans or lima beans require a little more heat to germinate and grow nicely, so April is a great month to get them growing. Radishes, collards, cucumbers, eggplants, cantaloupes, okra, Southern peas (field peas), peanuts, pumpkins, winter squash, summer squash, sweet corn, sweet potatoes (late April), tomatoes (transplants), peppers (transplants) and watermelons are also great to be planted this month. Like butter beans, okra really needs warm soil to germinate, so you may need to wait until the middle of the month or even later. If the soil is cold, the growth will be slow, and the plant will be more susceptible to insect and disease attacks. Well-fed well-watered plants planted at the right time can withstand a lot more insect and disease pressure, so patience is key for warm weather and excellent okra germination. Many gardeners also recommend soaking okra seeds for a few hours in water or scratching the surface of okra seeds with sandpaper just to help with uniform germination.
Most spring vegetables can be planted in May because the soil has warmed and danger of frost has passed. Plant sweet potatoes (transplants), okra, Southern peas, pumpkins, peanuts, sweet corn, watermelons, cucumbers, butter beans, squash, cantaloupes, collards and eggplants (transplants). Snap beans, butter beans, sweet corn, tomatoes and peppers (transplants) should be planted in the early days of May to prevent poor fruit set because of high temperatures. If you have not had a chance to plant tomatoes yet, you can still do so, but the LSU AgCenter recommends planting heat-set tomatoes at this time of year — especially if it is late in May. Heat-set varieties include, but are not limited to, Solar Set, Sun Gold, Phoenix and Florida 91. If the name sounds hot … it is probably heat-set. Heat-set simply means that when night temperatures are above 75 degrees Fahrenheit, pollination and fertilization will still occur.
Once your spring plants begin to flower, add just a little bit of extra nitrogen, such as bone meal, calcium nitrate, nitrate of soda and potassium nitrate, to the plants. Place this fertilizer about 6 inches from the main stem to prevent burning the plants. This little boost of nitrogen will help increase fruit set and increase plant vigor. How much? That really depends on which fertilizer you use. Follow rates on the label. Water your plants at the base. Plants drink from their roots and not so much from their leaves. Identify insects before you spray. Some insects are good and others are bad. There is no use in spraying the good ones and no use in spraying the bad ones with insecticides that will not work. There is not a one-size-kills-all insecticide, so make sure to talk to your local LSU AgCenter extension agent when identifying both insects and disease. Also, enjoy the garden. Yes, it’s work, but — wow — can it be pretty, too! Put a bench or little table by your garden to sit back and relax.
Dr. Kiki Fontenot, State Vegetable Extension Specialist
Dr. Heather Kirk-Ballard, Horticulture Specialist
Pine straw mulch in a bed of lantana plants
Herbicides can be effective tools for reducing weeds in your yard, but the best way to manage weeds is to grow a thick, healthy lawn. Lawns that are managed properly are lush and healthy, with few weed problems.
Visit www.lsuagcenter.com and search for the keywords “lawn BMP” for more information on growing a beautiful lawn.
Pre-emergence herbicides — Weed preventer or pre-emergence herbicides can be helpful in preventing the emergence of several summer annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. Pre-emergence herbicides may be applied safely in late winter to early spring to all established southern lawns.
Most pre-emergence products for home lawns are granular and should be applied with drop or broadcast spreaders and “watered in” soon after application. These types of herbicides kill weeds as they germinate, so application timing is extremely important. You have to apply before the weeds, such as crabgrass, germinate. They will not kill any existing winter weeds.
Residents in the New Orleans area and southernmost areas of the state should apply pre-emergence herbicides in late January or early February (definitely before Valentine’s Day) and then follow up with another application in mid-April. From Alexandria to Baton Rouge, residents should apply around Feb. 10, with a follow-up application in late April. If you live in north Louisiana, try to get these herbicides applied in late February to early March, with a follow-up application by mid-May. Some pre-emergence herbicide trade names to look for are Scotts Halts, Barricade and Hi-Yield Crabgrass Preventer with Dimension. Consult product labels concerning rates and application techniques.
Post-emergence herbicides — Post-emergence herbicides are used to kill weeds that already have emerged in the lawn. Winter broadleaf weeds usually are prevalent in the late winter to early spring throughout the state. MSM Turf (metsulfuron) and Celsius (theincarbazone-methyl + dicamba + iodosulfuron) are two highly effective broadleaf-killing herbicides that have consistently performed well in LSU AgCenter evaluations on winter broadleaves. MSM is effective on wild onion, false garlic and blue-eyed grass, which is actually an iris, as well as most winter broadleaves. These are low-use-rate herbicides, especially MSM. Follow the product labels very carefully so that lawns and trees are not injured. Do not use Celsius on carpetgrass.
More widely available broadleaf weed killers include trimec-type herbicides formulated with the active ingredients 2,4-D; dicamba; and mecoprop. Some examples of trade names to look for with these active ingredients include Trimec Southern, Ortho Weed B Gon for Southern Lawns, and Ferti-lome Weed Free Zone. Product manufacturers will often recommend a follow-up spray two or three weeks after the first application. Broadleaf weed killers such as these are widely available and can be used on most southern grasses. Injury can occur, however, when using them on St. Augustinegrass and centipedegrass as the weather gets warmer in late spring.
Atrazine is a herbicide that is effective on winter broadleaves and also controls annual bluegrass, especially when applied before the annual bluegrass flowers. Most garden centers have a good supply of atrazine on their shelves. Most weed and feed products labeled for St. Augustinegrass and centipedegrass contain atrazine as their active ingredient. However, liquid atrazine sprayed on weeds in the yard has worked better in LSU AgCenter trials than atrazine weed and feed products impregnated on a fertilizer granule.
What about weed and feed products? Weed and feed herbicides can be used at the times recommended for the first fertilizer application of the year. Apply weed and feed in the New Orleans area from mid-to-late March. For north Louisiana, mid-April is the time. Just be aware that applying weed and feed too early (late February to early March) may encourage outbreaks of large patch disease.
Clean your sprayers thoroughly with an ammonia solution if the same sprayer is used for applying insecticides or fungicides on landscape plants. It is best to buy a sprayer specifically dedicated for weed killers, however, to avoid accidental injury to desirable plants. As always, be sure to read and follow product label recommendations before using any pesticide.
Lawns vary in the amount of fertilizer required during the growing season. See the table below for information regarding the number and timings of fertilizer applications recommended for lawn species grown in Louisiana. Bermudagrass and St. Augustinegrass require the most fertilizer compared to other lawn grasses. Centipedegrass and zoysia only require one to two applications of fertilizer per year.
Number of fertilizer applications/year
|Bermudagrass||3||March/April, June, August (optional September)|
|Centipedegrass||1 to 1.5||April and possibly June at ½ fertilizer rate|
|St. Augustinegrass||2 to 3||April, June, August|
|Zoysia||2||April and July|
A spring application of weed and feed could serve as your first fertilizer application. For future applications during the growing season, consider using 3:1:2 or 4:1:2 ratios of N-P-K as a guide for the analysis of fertilizers to choose for the lawn. For example, a fertilizer with an analysis of 21-7-14 is a fertilizer with a 3:1:2 ratio. You would be better off getting your soil tested. Soil tests would be most helpful to determine exactly what nutrients are needed to make your lawn beautiful. Contact your parish extension office concerning soil sampling your yard today.
Dr. Ron Strahan, Weed Scientist and Turfgrass Specialist
Blue eyed grass is actually an iris that often infests lawns in the early spring.
Indian mock strawberry is common in poor lawns.
Spotted burclover is a cool season legume found in lawns in spring.
Leaf gall of camellias and azaleas is a fungal disease favored by extended periods of cool, wet weather during spring. This is primarily a leaf disease, but it occasionally may occur on stems, flowers and seed pods. There are mainly two species of the Exobasidium fungus that cause this disease: Exobasidium vaccinia on azaleas and E. camelliae on camellias.
Symptoms of leaf galls start appearing soon after the plants finish flowering. Leaves are distorted and become thickened with a fleshy or leather-like texture (Figures 1 and 2). Galls tend to be pale green, pink or white (Figure 3) in the beginning, but as they develop, they become white and powdery. The white powder material is the spores of the fungus, which readily disperse via air currents and by splashing water. As the galls get older, they shrivel up, dry out and turn brown and hard (Figure 4). Older galls fall to the ground, where they survive and may serve as a source of incoculum for the next spring susceptible growth.
Management of leaf galls is achieved primarily by adopting good cultural practices in the landscapes. Proper pruning and discarding of galled leaves are very important in reducing the spread of the disease. Cut galled leaves a couple of inches below the symptoms and, before discarding them, put them in resealable clear storage bags, such as a Ziploc-style bag.
Remove and destroy affected leaves with galls that have fallen on the ground. Improve air circulation by selective thinning of the canopy of established plantings to promote rapid drying of foliage. Also, maintain adequate spacing when establishing new plantings to avoid creating favorable conditions for disease development. Fungicides may help avoid infection when applied beginning at bud break. Repeated applications may be required every 10 days as long as the conducive weather conditions persist for disease development. For fungicide selection, please consult your local LSU AgCenter extension agent. For more information on leaf galls of azaleas and camellias, please contact Dr. Raj Singh at 225-578-4562 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dr. Raj Singh, Plant Pathologist and Director of Plant Diagnostic Center
Figure 1. Leaf gall on a camellia (photo credit: Dr. Raj Singh, LSU AgCenter).
Figure 2. Leaf gall on an azalea (photo credit: Dr. Raj Singh, LSU AgCenter).
Figure 3. Camellia galls showing color variations (photo credit: Dr. Raj Singh, LSU AgCenter).
Figure 4. Older mature gall turning brown on an azalea. (photo credit: Dr. Raj Singh, LSU AgCenter).